Was there a Revision of Isidore’s Histories in the early 630s? (pdf)
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The Historia Gothorum (or De Origine Gothorum) by Isidore of Seville is known to us in two versions – a shorter one written c. 619 during the reign of Sisebut (r. 612-621), and a longer version written c. 624 during the period of Swintila (r. 621-631/633). However, there exists in modern historiography a conjecture that Isidore may have composed a third version dedicated to another Visigothic king – Sisenand (r. 631/633-636). In large part, the argument for this rests on the “Dedication to King Sisenand” (Dedicatio ad Sisenandum regem) which is transmitted effectively by only one manuscript of the later version, MS Madrid BU 134 (M) produced in the thirteenth century, although it is also in the derivative manuscripts of Lucas de Tuy [d. 1249]). According to some scholars, Isidore prepared, at the behest of Sisenand, a final redaction of the longer version during the years 633-636, but this thesis rests upon on controversial evidence. Inter alia, the Dedicatio ad Sisenandum may not be authentic. Moreover, according to the Dedicatio, the work contained a history not only of Goths, Vandals, and Sueves, but also of the Alans (Alanos) and even Spaniards (Hispanos). The latter clearly are not considered as a separate gens in the narrative of the longer version of the Historia Gothorum, which does not describe their history. The second major problem is that the longer version was written as a panegyric for Swintila and his son Riccimer. Sisenand was an enemy of these figures, having deposed Swintila in 631 (or 633). It can be argued that the hypothetical final redaction of the Historia Gothorum dedicated to Sisenand would have omitted praise of Swintila and Riccimer. The M manuscript mentioned above belongs to a family of manuscripts of the text referred to as the “mixed version.” This cannot be regarded as the final version of Historia Gothorum, but rather an intermediate one standing between the shorter and the longer versions. Moreover, all of the manuscripts of the “mixed version” (including M) contain the panegyric for Swintila which thus indicates that the hypothetical existence of a third version dedicated to Sisenand is built on rather shaky ground. The aim of this essay is to reconsider the arguments put forward by those who defend the thesis of a third Isidorian revision of the Historia Gothorum and, through manuscript analysis, finally answer whether Isidore did or did not revise his Historia Gothorum in the early 630s.
The Historia Gothorum (hereafter HG) by the Spanish bishop and intellectual Isidore of Seville could be considered his most important work. However, for many years, it was perceived simply as a historiographical monument worthy only of the attention of its editors. In recent years, this viewpoint has undergone a fundamental change – both in terms of the message of Isidore’s work as well as its value as a historical source. As it is extant, it is an important historical document and our principal source for the history of the Visigothic regnum of Toledo to the 620s.
As noted above, the Historia Gothorum exists today in two versions (or recensions) – the shorter one completed c. 619 or 620 during the reign of Sisebut or his son and successor Reccared II (d. 621), and the longer recension published c. 624 during the reign of Swintila. This latter one is introduced by a eulogy of Spain (the Laus Spaniae) and ends with the “praise of the Goths” (Laus Gothorum) – a conclusion of the narrative under the title Recapitulatio. Although not extant, some scholars allow the possibility that Isidore prepared, or had been preparing before his death, a third version dedicated to Sisenand. The hypothesis about the existence of a third version is generally based on the existence in MS Madrid BU 134 (M) of a fragment which Theodor Mommsen referred to as the Dedicatio historiarum Isidori ad Sisenandum (hereafter Dedicatio) This fragment can also be found in the version provided in the Chronica by Lucas of Tuy, completed in 1238. But, do these manuscripts reflect an actual Isidorian tradition? The second piece of evidence used to argue for a 630s HG is the claim that there exists a final version in which the laudatory language in honor of Swintila has been removed.
I argue that the Dedicatio does not form part of a full text and is not proof that Isidore revised his work in the 630s. The inscription is, so it claims to be, a letter from Isidore to Sisenand. The most important piece of the Dedicatio for the argument here is the bit that reads: “Quia de origine Gothorum Hispanorum Suevorum Vandalorum et Alanorum et qualiter rexerunt Hispaniam tibi fieri notitiam postulasti, in huius parte duximus laborandum atque tuae karitati prout possumus id scribendo breviter explanare, which Agustí Alemany translated as: “as you requested us to let you know of the origin of the Goths, Spaniards, Suebi and Alans and how they governed Spain, we have directed our task to this end, as much as we can explain this briefly to Your Majesty in writing.” The sentence implies that Isidore’s revised work contained not only the well-known works related to the origins and history of the Goths and two other barbarian peoples – Sueves and Vandals – but also other parts (or appendices) dedicated to the origins and history of the Alans (Alani) and the Spaniards (Hispani). This last reference constitutes quite a problem. The Alans are mentioned in several sections of the HG and the Historia Sueouorum (HS) and Historia Vandalorum (HV). For example, in ch. 22 of the longer version of the HG we read that they were badly defeated by the Gothic king Wallia (reigning 415-418), and in ch. 68 of the same version, we can read that the Alans were destroyed by the Goths’ strength. However, unlike the Sueves and the Vandals, the main heroes of the Historia Sueourum and Historia Vandalorum respectively, Isidore did not devote separate parts of his work to Alans and Spaniards, nor extensively discuss their histories in chapters of the HG. We have yet a different kind of problem with the Spaniards. In his Etymologies, Isidore mentions the Spaniards (Hispani) who, according to him, were descendants of the biblical Tubal, who was, in turn, a descendant of the brother-slayer Cain. However, none of the HG versions mentions the Spaniards as a separate gens, nor does Isidore raise the question of their origins (in fact, only Emperor Theodosius is mentioned as a Spaniard). In his historical inquiries Isidore shows little interest in the history of the autochthonous people of Spain – in fact, only in the Historia Vandalorum are the Spaniards mentioned, on one occasion, as a people. Therefore, it seems unlikely that Isidore would have written a new version of his work which apart from the history of the Goths, Sueves, and Vandals would also include the histories of the Alans and the Spaniards. After all, manuscripts of the so-called “mixed version” – as will be shown below – contradict this hypothesis. The Dedicatio itself is now, rightly, considered a forgery probably created in the 12th century in the intellectual circle of bishop Pelagius of Oviedo (d. 1153).
The longer (extant) version of the HG contains two fragments, which editors of the text have marked as chapters 64 and 65. The former chapter praises the royal virtues of Swintila, while the latter is a peculiar panegyric in honor of his son Riccimer. Fragment 64 depicts Swintila as the most eminent monarch of the Visigothic kingdom:
“[…] faith, prudence, industry, strenuousness in examination in the passing of judicial sentences, outstanding care in the exercise of rulership, munificence towards all, generosity to the poor, a disposition towards quick forgiveness; so that not only is he worthy to be called the ruler of the people but also the father of the poor.”
Fragment 65, on the other hand, praises Riccimer as a person, elaborating on his excellency:
“His son Riccimer has been accepted in partnership of rule, and rejoices in equal dominion with his father; in his childhood the brilliance of his holy nature so shines forth in him that, both in merits and countenance, the image of his father’s virtues is marked beforehand. For him the ruler of heaven and of mankind must be besought that, just as by his father’s consent he is his partner, so, after a long reign of his father he may also be most worthy of succession to the kingship.”
Several years later, in 630, a Visigothic aristocrat named Sisenand led a rebellion against Swintila in the Ebro River valley and called on the Franks to assist in the usurpation. The Merovingians decided to provide military support to Sisenand. As soon as King Dagobert I’s (r. 629-639) army gathered in Burgundy in support of Sisenand, the Goths abandoned Swintila and went over to the rebel’s side. In 631, the Gothic army proclaimed Sisenand king and Swintila was forced to abdicate. At the Fourth Council of Toledo (633), chaired by Isidore, Swintila was condemned and accused of various offenses, including the accumulation of wealth at the expense of the poor.
Logic suggests that the hypothetical third version of Isidore’s HG, dedicated to Sisenand, could not contain either a eulogy in honor of Swintila or a panegyric to the glory of Riccimer. The eulogy legitimized Swintila’s power and presented him as one of finest Gothic kings, surpassing even the great Reccared I (r. 586-601), otherwise also praised by Isidore. The praise of Riccimer, in turn, validated his would-be succession, thereby it was an attempt to found a new royal dynasty. There was a resemblance (similitudo) between the greatest of the Visigothic rulers and his son – in other words, the son of the best ruler was equally excellent. Such eulogies simply could not be found in the work dedicated to Sisenand, who was the enemy of both men. Moreover, the fact that Swintila was condemned at IV Toledo suggests that Isidore would have removed any content praising him if he was going to revise the HG for Sisenand.
Thus, from a subject and content perspective, it is evident that chapters 64 and 65 of the HG would have been a problem for a revision of the text in the 630s. But, what do the mixed version manuscripts indicate? Do they perhaps hint at these passages having been removed, revised or in some way altered to fit a third recension of the HG? What do they show?
- (M) MS Madrid BU 134, ff. 53ra-59rb (containing: Historia Gothorum, Recapitulatio, Dedicatio ad Sisenandum, Historia Vandalorum, and Historia Sueourum) which, as mentioned above, transmits the Dedicatio to Sisenand, dates back to the 13th century and was probably copied in Toledo. It was produced between the years 1220-1230, and probably derives from the lost Santa Cruz de Coimbra model. Isidore’s HG begins (on f. 53) with the words: Incipit Gothorum ystoria a supra fato edita. Gothorum antiquissimam and ends with esse porrectum. The manuscript contains chapters 64 and 65, i.e. both the Swintila eulogy and the panegyric in honor of Riccimer. The manuscript does not contain separate histories (or additional chapters of the HG, HS or HV) devoted to the Alans and the Spaniards.
- (G) MS Madrid 1.513, ff. 24ra-38rb (containing: Historia Vandalorum, Historia Sueuorum, and fragments 1-64 of the HG), dating back to the 13th century, was possibly copied in Toledo. HG begins (on f. 28) with Incipit cronica regum gotorum a beato Ysidoro hispalensis ecclesie episcopo ab atanarico rege gotorum primo usque ad catholicum regem bambanum. Gotorum antiquissimam gentem, and ends with the last words of the eulogy of Swintila, vocari sit dignus. The manuscript contains, essentially, the entire acclamation of the king, although it does not contain the panegyric to Riccimer that follows it. After the praise of Swintila, kings Tulga (r. 639-642) and his successor Chindaswinth (r. 642-653) are mentioned successively. Like the M manuscript, G does not contain separate parts or additional chapters dedicated to the Alans and the Spaniards.
- (H) MS Madrid RAH 9/4922, ff. 12r-24v (containing: Historia Vandalorum, Historia Sueuorum, Recapitulatio, Historia Gothorum) – formerly marked as A 189 – was produced in the 13th The HG begins with the words Incipit regnum Gotorum. Scitote Gotorum, and concludes with esse porrectum. The manuscript contains chapters 64 and 65. Similar to manuscripts M and G, it does not contain separate parts dedicated to the Alans and the Spaniards.
- (A) MS Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, 982 ff. 45rb-48vb (containing: Historia Gothorum, Recapitulatio, Historia Vandalorum, Historia Sueuorum), dating to the 14th century, was produced either in southern France or northern Italy. The HG begins (on f. 45) with the words Gothorum antiquissimam and ends with esse porrectum. The manuscript contains chapters 64 and 65. Like the former manuscripts, it does not include separate parts or additional chapters dedicated to the Alans and the Spaniards.
This very brief review of four manuscripts suggests that the theory about the third version of HG, the one dedicated to Sisenand, is based on questionable grounds. Firstly, the M manuscript – the one containing the so-called Dedicatio – includes both Swintila’s eulogy and the panegyric in honor of Riccimer. It can hardly be expected that Isidore would compose a new version of the work for the king who dethroned Swintila, a version that contained two critical passages praising Sisenand’s enemies. Secondly, none of the four manuscripts, in particular M, provides content that could be linked to the alleged passages devoted to the Alans and the Spaniards, as reported by the Dedicatio.
The manuscripts of the so-called mixed version – with the exception of the G manuscript which does not contain chapter 65 – do contain chapters 64 and 65 of the HG, and thus they cannot form the alleged third version, from which the laudatory language of Swintila would have to have been removed. An interesting question is why the Riccimer panegyric is missing from the G manuscript? Yet, another question arises: if there is no indication that these four manuscripts are not the third version dedicated to Sisenand, what actually are they?
The shorter version of the HG is transmitted by three manuscripts, two of which come directly from the P manuscript (Paris BnF Lat. 4873) produced in the 12th century. The best manuscript of the longer version is Berlin Staatsbibliothek Phillipps 1.885 (B) (copied before the year 846 in the scriptorium of Pacificus of Verona). The P manuscript was traditionally considered to be the work of Isidore himself, but Roger Collins has suggested (supported by several interesting arguments) that the manuscript is, in fact, the lost historiola by bishop Maximus of Zaragoza (or something very close to it), being one of the main sources of Isidore’s longer recension of the HG. Over the course of time, researchers have put forward another thesis which argues that there existed a third version which they call the mixed version. The most recent editor of the HG, Cristóbal Rodríguez Alonso, has maintained that manuscripts G, M, A (and H) originated from an archetype (referred to as d), which included a longer version of HG, but also contained variants known from the shorter version. From that, he has concluded that the archetype d provided a number of variants common to G, M, A, H, and P. José Carlos Martín has presented another theory, based on Rodríguez Alonso’s argument. Carlos Martín claims that manuscripts M and A are an intermediate version between the shorter redaction (transmitted in the archetype of the P manuscript) and the longer version, both of which, according to him, were written by Isidore himself. Therefore, according to Carlos Martín, archetype d (being a template for manuscripts G, M, and A) was some kind of “a work in progress,” something intermediate between the archetype of manuscript P and the archetype of manuscripts B, R, and N (manuscripts transmitting the longer version). This theory seems to be the strongest one so far proposed.
However, there is still the compelling question of why chapter 65 is missing from the G manuscript. One possible answer is that the copyist focused exclusively on the information concerning the actual monarchs of the Visigothic regnum, leaving out the praise of Riccimer. The author or scribe of manuscript G, however, has an obvious problem with establishing the order of succession after Swintila’s reign. He completely omits Sisenand, does not refer to his successor Chintila (r. 636-639), and after the words sit dignus he mentions Tulga, who was to reign for two years and four months, according to the manuscript. What is interesting is that in the Chronica by Lucas de Tuy, which includes the Dedicatio ad Sisenandum, Isidore’s HG also closes with chapter 64 with the words vocari sit dignus.
In conclusion, the possibility that Isidore actually created a new – third – version of his HG in the 630s, the one dedicated to Sisenand, is a very tempting hypothesis that has been accepted by some scholars. Unfortunately, the source material to support it is very weak, and although it would be nice to be able to say that Isidore had actually composed a third version of the HG, the content of which would correspond to the new political regime that came into being with Swintila’s deposition and Sisenand’s accession to the throne, it must be said, at least for now, from the evidence presently available, that such a text never existed.
 For the editions of the HG see: Isidore of Seville, Historia Gothorum, Wandalorvm Sveborvm, ed. Theodor Mommsen, MGH AA 11, Chronica minora saec. IV. V. VI. VII. (II) (Berlin, 1894) (hereafter Mommsen, HG); Las historias de los godos, vandalos y suevos de Isidoro de Sevilla. Estudio, edicion critica y traduction, ed. Cristóbal Rodríguez Alonso (Leon, 1975). On the manuscript tradition of the HG see Isabel Velázquez, “Revisiones de autor y de copistas en las obras de Isidoro de Sevilla. A propósito de la Historia Gothorum,” Antiquité Tardive: Revue Internationale d’Histoire et d’Archéologie (IVe-VIIe siècle) 23 (2015): 67-79, here 73-79; Rodrigo Furtado, “Isidore’s Histories in the Mozarabic scholarship of the eighth and the early ninth centuries,” in Ways of Approaching Knowledge in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Schools and Scholarship, Studia classica et mediaevalia, vol. 8, ed. Paulo Farmhouse Alberto and David Paniagua (Nordhausen, 2012), 264-87; Carmen Codoñer, José Carlos Martín and María Adelaida Andrés Sanz, “Isidorus Hispalensis ep.,” in La trasmissione dei testi latini del Medioevo. Mediaeval Latin Texts and their Transmission. Te. Tra. 2, ed. Paolo Chiesa and Lucia Castaldi (Florence: SISMEL, 2005), 274-417, at 370-379. A longer version of José Carlos Martín’s text is, idem, “Réflexions sur la tradition manuscrite de trois oeuvres d’Isidore de Séville: le De natura rerum, la Regula monachorum et le De origine Getarum, Vandalorum, Sueborum,” Filologia mediolatina 11 (2004): 244-63.
 See also the comments by E. A. Thompson, The Goths in Spain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969), 7; but cf. Paul Merritt Bassett, “The Use of History in the Chronicon of Isidore of Seville,” History and Theory 15.3 (1976): 278-92.
 On the ideology of kingship in Isidore’s HG see e. g. Marc Reydellet, La royauté dans la littérature latine de Sidoine Apollinaire à Isidore de Seville, Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d’Athènes et de Rome 243 (Rome: École Française de Rome Palais Farnèse, 1981), 505-97.
 On the Visigothic kingdom of Toledo see: Roger Collins, Visigothic Spain, 409-711 (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2004); José Orlandis Rovira, Historia del reino visigodo español (Madrid, 2011); Gerd Kampers, Geschichte der Westgoten (Paderborn, 2008), at 157-238); and, Javier Arce, Esperando a los árabes: Los visigodos en Hispania (507-711) (Madrid, 2011).
 On Isidore and his works see: Jacques Fontaine, Isidore de Seville et la culture classique dans l’Espagne wisigothique, vols. 1 and 2 (Paris: Études Augustiniennes, 1959); Pierre Cazier, Isidore de Séville et la naissance de l’Espagne catholique, Théologie historique 96 (Paris: Beauchesne, 1994); Jamie Wood, The Politics of Identity in Visigothic Spain: Religion and Power in the Histories of Isidore of Seville (Boston and Leiden: Brill, 2012); and, Rachel L. Stocking, Bishops, Councils, and Consensus in the Visigothic Kingdom, 589-633 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001), 133.
 See the excellent discussion in: Andrew H. Merrills, History and Geography in Late Antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 179-85.
 See Roger Collins, “Isidore, Maximus and the Historia Gothorum,” in Historiographie im frühen Mittelalter, ed. Anton Scharer and Georg Sheibelreiter (Vienna: Oldenbourg, 1994), 345-58, at 346; Herwig Wolfram, Die Goten. Von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des sechsten Jahrhunderts (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2009), 41 and 386 with n. 5; Marc Reydellet, “Les intentions idéologiques et politiques dans la Chronique d’Isidore de Séville,” Mélanges de l’école française de Rome 82.1 (1970): 363-400, at 363; and, Hans-Joachim Diesner, Isidor von Sevilla und seine Zeit (Stuttgart: Calwer, 1973), 16.
 On the Dedicatio ad Sisenandum regem see Helena de Carlos Villamarín, Las antigüedades de Hispania (Spoleto: Centro italiano di studi sull’Alto medioevo, 1996), 153-238; Luís Vázquez de Parga, “Por qué la Dedicatio ad Sisenandum no puede ser de San Isidoro de Sevilla,” in Bivium: Homenaje a Manuel C. Diaz y Díaz (Madrid: Gredos, 1983), 285-86; Alonso, Las Historias, 64-66. On the version of Lucas de Tuy see Alonso, Las Historias, 134-35.
 See Jace T. Crouch, “Isidore of Seville and the Evolution of Kingship in Visigothic Spain,” Mediterranean Studies 4 (1994): 9-26, at 20, n. 66.
 On the scholarship that sees the Dedicatio as apocryphal, see Alonso, Las Historias, 64-66, and Hugo Hertzberg, Die Historien und die Chroniken des Isidorus von Sevilla: Eine Quellenuntersuchung. Erster Theil: Die Historien (Göttingen: Peppmüller, 1974), 17.
 Mommsen, HG, 304.
 Agustí Alemany, Sources on the Alans: A Critical Compilation (Boston and Leiden: Brill, 2000), 129-30.
 Mommsen, HG, cap. 22, 276.
 Mommsen, HG, cap. 68, 294.
 Etymologiae, ed. Wallace M. Lindsay (Oxford, 1913), ch. 9.2.29.
 Alonso, Las Historias, ch. 11, 188.
 Alonso, Las Historias, ch. 73, 292.
 See Carlos Villamarín, Las antigüedades de Hispania, 153-238.
 Mommsen, HG, ch. 64, 293: “fides, prudentia, industria, in iudiciis examination strenua, in regendo regno cura praecipua, circa omnes munificentia, largus, erga indigentes et inopes, misericordia satis promptus, ita ut non solum princeps populorum, sed etiam pater pauperum vocari sit dignus.” I have adopted the translation from Collins, Visigothic Spain, 77-78.
 Mommsen, HG, ch. 65, 293: “Hujus filius Riccimirus in consortio regni assumptus pari cum patre solio conlaetatur, in cuius infantia ita sacrae indolis splendor emicat, ut in eo et meritis et vultu paternarum virtutum effigies praenotetur. pro quo exorandus est caeli atque humani generis rector, ut sicut exstat concessu patrio socius, ita post longaevum parentis imperium sit et regni successione dignissimus.” I have adopted the translation from Isidore’s of Seville’s History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi, trans. Guido Donini and Gordon B. Ford Jr. (Boston and Leiden: Brill, 1966), p. 30.
 See the Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar with its continuation, ed. John M. Wallace-Hadrill (New York and London: Nelson, 1960), ch. 73, 61-62.
 See Collins, Visigothic Spain, 78.
 It is worth noting that ch. 62 presents Swintila as God’s chosen monarch: “gloriosissimus Suinthila gratia diuina regni suscepit sceptra,” Alonso, Las Historias, 274 (“the most glorious Suinthila by divine favor took up the sceptres of royal power,” translation: Isidore’s of Seville’s, History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi, 28).
 See Robert Kasperski, Reges et gentes. Studia nad dyskursem legitymizującym władzę nad wspólnotami wyobrażonymi oraz strategiami ich konstruowania we wczesnym średniowieczu (VI – VII w.) (Warsaw: Instytut Historii PAN, 2017), 161-64.
 On the theme of similitudo in late antique panegyrics see Frank Kolb, Herrscherideologie in der Spätantik (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2001), 61-62.
 Alonso, Las Historias, 66.
 Naturally, we must exclude from this list inter alia the manuscripts: Bp, which contains only the Recapitulatio and Laus Spanie; S, which contains only chapters 13-19 of the HG; U, which contains only Laus Spaniae; W, which contains only chapters 1-3 of the HG, and ch. 66 of the Recapitulatio; MSS X and Y, which contain only the Recapitulatio and Laus Spaniae; and Z, which contains only the Recapitulatio.
 On the description of this manuscript see: Mommsen, HG, 262; Alonso, Las Historias, 130; and Codoñer, Martín and Andrés, “Isidorus Hispalensis ep.,” 372.
 Furtado, “Isidore’s Histories,” 11.
 On the description of this manuscript see: Alonso, Las Historias, 132-33 and Codoñer, Martín and Andrés Sanz, “Isidorus Hispalensis ep.,” 372.
 On the description of this manuscript see: Alonso, Las Historias, 129-30 and Codoñer, Martín and Andrés Sanz, “Isidorus Hispalensis ep.,” 372.
 On the description of this manuscript see: Alonso, Las Historias, 131; Furtado, “Isidore’s Histories,” 11; and, Codoñer, Martín and Andrés Sanz, “Isidorus Hispalensis ep.,” 371.
 I am merely summarizing here the discussion presented by Furtado, “Isidore’s Histories,” 22.
 Collins, “Isidore, Maximus,” 356-35
 See Martín, ‘Réflexions sur la tradition manuscrite de trois oeuvres d’Isidore de Séville,” 244-63.
Chronicle of Fredegar. The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar with its continuation. Translated by John M. Wallace-Hadrill. New York and London: Nelson, 1960.
Isidore of Seville. Etymologiae. Edited by Wallace M. Lindsay. Oxford, 1913.
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Arce, Javier. Esperando a los árabes: Los visigodos en Hispania (507-711). Madrid, 2011.
Carlos Villamarín, Helena de. Las antigüedades de Hispania. Spoleto: Centro italiano di studi sull’Alto medioevo, 1996.
Cazier, Pierre. Isidore de Séville et la naissance de l’Espagne catholique. Théologie historique 96. Paris: Beauchesne, 1994.
Codoñer, Carmen, José Carlos Martín and María Adelaida Andrés Sanz. “Isidorus Hispalensis ep.” In La trasmissione dei testi latini del Medioevo. Mediaeval Latin Texts and their Transmission, Te. Tra. 2, edited by Paolo Chiesa and Lucia Castaldi, 274-417. Florence: SISMEL, 2005.
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Fontaine, Jacques. Isidore de Seville et la culture classique dans l’Espagne wisigothique. 2 Volumes. Paris: Études Augustiniennes, 1959.
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Hertzberg, Hugo. Die Historien und die Chroniken des Isidorus von Sevilla: Eine Quellenuntersuchung. Erster Theil: Die Historien. Göttingen: Peppmüller, 1974.
Kampers, Gerd. Geschichte der Westgoten. Paderborn, 2008.
Kasperski, Robert. Reges et gentes. Studia nad dyskursem legitymizującym władzę nad wspólnotami wyobrażonymi oraz strategiami ich konstruowania we wczesnym średniowieczu (VI – VII w.). Warsaw: Instytut Historii PAN, 2017.
Kolb, Frank. Herrscherideologie in der Spätantik. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2001.
Martín, José Carlos. “Réflexions sur la tradition manuscrite de trois oeuvres d’Isidore de Séville: le De natura rerum, la Regula monachorum et le De origine Getarum, Vandalorum, Sueborum,” Filologia mediolatina 11 (2004): 244-63.
Merrills, Andrew H. History and Geography in Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Merritt Bassett, Paul. “The Use of History in the Chronicon of Isidore of Seville,” History and Theory 15.3 (1976): 278-92.
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